Can a woman get hiv from a man without ejaculating
Participants: Susan P. Buchbinder, MD; Frederick M. Hecht, MD; Jeffrey D. Our goal today is to address three specific questions that have remained controversial throughout the AIDS epidemic.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Can HIV transmission occur through contact with ejaculatory fluid? - Dr. Ramakrishna Prasad
SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: 5 tips to ensure healthy sperm - Jesse Mills, MD - UCLA Health NewsroomContent:
The Odds of Getting HIV, Ranked
Sure, you can Google the subject, but the results may further confuse and scare you. The AIDS. Numbers seem less abstract, more specific. But do they give us a better understanding of HIV risk and sexual health? Probabilities of HIV transmission per exposure to the virus are usually expressed in percentages or as odds see chart at the end of this article.
For example, the average risk of contracting HIV through sharing a needle one time with an HIV-positive drug user is 0. The risk from giving a blowjob to an HIV-positive man not on treatment is at most 1 in 2, or 0.
The risk of contracting HIV during vaginal penetration, for a woman in the United States, is 1 per 1, exposures or 0. As for anal sex, the most risky sex act in terms of HIV transmission, if an HIV-negative top—the insertive partner—and an HIV-positive bottom have unprotected sex, the chances of the top contracting the virus from a single encounter are 1 in or 0. Specifically, it is 1. If the guy pulls out before ejaculation, then the odds are 1 out of Say what? Is HIV really this hard to transmit, especially in light of the alarming statistics we are bombarded with?
Although the CDC estimates that nearly 1. And before you even think it: No, the answer is not that everyone with HIV is a ginormous slut who has never heard of safer sex. For starters, you have to understand that these probabilities of HIV transmission per single exposure are averages. They are general ballpark figures that do not reflect the many factors that can raise and lower risk. One such factor is acute infection, the period of six to 12 weeks after contracting the virus.
So right there, the per-act risk of receptive vaginal transmission jumps from 1 out of 1, exposures to 1 out of 50 exposures, and the risk of receptive anal sex goes from 1 out of 70 to higher than 1 out of 3. Vaginal conditions such as bacterial vaginosis, dryness and menstruation also alter risk. But they can be a good tool for understanding risk. Other factors lower risk. Circumcision does so an average of 60 percent for heterosexual men.
HIV-negative people can take a daily Truvada pill as pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, to lower their risk by 92 percent; similarly, there is post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP. And the CDC says condoms lower risk about 80 percent. Of course, these numbers will vary based on correct and consistent use of the prevention strategy.
Researchers also view risk through the constructs of family, relationships, community and socioeconomic status. Then there is the concept of cumulative risk. The oft-cited numbers for the risk of HIV transmission take into account one instance of exposure. But this is not a static number. Doing so is a serious gamble. Numbers and probabilities can be miscalculated and misinterpreted. Case in point: Having a 1 in 70 chance of transmitting HIV does not mean it takes 70 exposures to the virus in order to seroconvert.
It simply means that out of 70 exposures, on average, one will lead to HIV; bad luck might have it that the transmission occurs on the very first exposure. Another important concept to grasp is absolute risk what the risk actually is versus relative risk the percent change in the risk. In this example, a 92 percent risk reduction does not mean the final absolute risk is 8 percent.
Instead, it is a 92 percent reduction of the beginning risk. If the beginning absolute risk is 50 percent, then PrEP reduces the risk to 4 percent; if the beginning risk is 20 percent, then PrEP lowers it to 1.
Also, there are often research gaps, he says, meaning that in many cases, scientists might not yet have real-world examples to back up these numbers and calculations, but they do have mathematical modeling and the biological rationale for why certain ideas about HIV risk are true. Surveys have found that more than one in five gay men in urban cities are HIV positive, and the virus is more prevalent among MSM of color and certain communities.
People in these communities are more likely to come in contact with the virus even if they have fewer partners and practice safer sex more often. Perhaps the biggest miscalculation is the incorrect assessment that you or your partner is HIV negative. But a young guy from the Midwest who looks negative? Data be damned. Often for good reason. One survey asked young MSM who cruised for sex online to list their main worries. The answers? Will Robinson! And in the real world, risk-takers are celebrated.
We have to take risks every day. Sexual health is often framed in the idea of risk instead of rewards. This may present HIV and those living with it as the worst possible outcome imaginable, he notes, which is not only stigmatizing but often irrational and false since many people with HIV are, in fact, just fine.
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Against All Odds: What Are Your Chances of Getting HIV in These Scenarios?
When it comes to contracting HIV, some acts are riskier than others. Here are the HIV transmission rates by type of exposure. It takes only one instance of exposure to become infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. Here, approximately, are the odds of getting HIV , broken down by type of exposure — and how to reduce your risk. The reason is that needles, syringes, and other equipment can contain blood, and therefore HIV, which can then be directly transmitted into the bloodstream.
HIV can be detected in semen of men who have an undetectable viral load in blood, according to results of a man study. If HIV can be detected in semen -- even at low levels -- there may be a chance that it can be transmitted to a female or male sex partner. Several studies show that sex partners of HIV-positive people taking antiretrovirals have a lower risk of becoming infected with HIV than do partners of people not taking antiretrovirals. Some officials argue that antiretroviral-treated people with an undetectable viral load in blood and without another sexually transmitted infection can safely have sex without a condom because they are highly unlikely to pass their HIV along to a sex partner. But this proposal remains controversial, partly because studies in the past 10 years show that HIV can be detected in semen even when it is not detected in blood.
HIV Can Be Found in Semen Even When Viral Load Is Undetectable in Blood
Related: All topics , HIV transmission. Even without a condom, the risk from a single exposure is less than, for example, 1 in The actual risk becoming infected varies depending on many factors. These include the type of exposure, whether the other person is HIV positive, how high or low their viral load is, the duration and roughness of the sex etc. If the partner is HIV positive, then viral load is the most important factor. But the risk is effectively zero with someone who is taking treatment and who has an undetectable viral load. This question was updated in January and November from an original answer posted in June I had sex with an HIV positive. I used a condom then in the last minute I took off the condom to ejaculate in her.
HIV Risk Without Ejaculation During Sex
During a median follow-up period of 1. No HIV transmissions occurred. The investigators concluded that the risk of HIV transmission through vaginal intercourse in these circumstances was effectively zero Rodger.
Can You Get HIV During Sex Without Ejaculation?
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In evaluating your risk, you tend to weigh and pros and cons as to which activities might be safer than others. At times, this can put you at higher rather than lower risk simply because "common sense" assumptions are not often right. While it may same reasonable to assume that less semen means less HIV, the facts don't always support the belief. The simple fact is that HIV present in both semen and pre-seminal fluid also known as pre-ejaculatory fluid or "pre-cum". While the volume of HIV in pre-seminal fluids is inherently lower, that number can change significantly if a person is untreated.
How Is HIV Transmitted?